What is Phosphoric Acid? is one of the most popular acids used in many industries, especially in the production of fertilizers. Phosphoric acid salts, which are phosphates, are mainly used in agriculture and even at home. Students may even hear the word “phosphoric acid” often in their chemistry classes. Phosphoric acid belongs to the group of weak acids. Also known as orthophosphoric acid, it helps us to easily distinguish it from other phosphoric acids such as polyphosphoric acid. Another name for phosphoric acid is phosphoric acid (V). It is a colorless syrup with a concentration of 85% in water. The pure compound of phosphoric acid is a colorless solid. Commonly known in chemical laboratories as 85% aqueous solution. All three hydrogens in phosphoric acid are acidic in varying degrees and can be removed from the molecule, ions known as protons. When all three phosphoric acid ions are removed, the result is an orthophosphate ion. Removal of one or two protons from phosphoric acid produces dihydrogen phosphate ions. Orthophosphoric acid also forms esters, ie organophosphates.
It is usually produced or prepared using two different types of processes. These processes include the wet and thermal process.
Phosphoric acid can be found in beverages, dairy products such as milk, cheese and buttermilk and other processed foods such as cereal bars, aromatic waters, bottled coffee drinks and processed meats.
Phosphoric acid salts are phosphates. Important phosphates include:
– Ammonium phosphate
Dioammonium hydrogen phosphate and monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate are commonly used as fertilizers. They are produced by mixing the right amount of phosphoric acid with anhydrous ammonia in a rotating drum.
– Calcium phosphate
Calcium phosphate is widely used as fertilizer. It is made by reacting sulfuric acid with phosphate rock.
– Sodium phosphate
In the reaction of phosphoric acid with a concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide under controlled conditions, sodium phosphate is formed. The product is formed in the form of solid crystals.
What are the physical and chemical properties of phosphoric acid?
– Physical properties
Pure phosphoric acid is typically a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 42.4. It is a colorless, odorless acid and viscous liquid with a density of 2,030 g / cm. Phosphoric acid is non-toxic and non-volatile in nature.
– chemical properties
Phosphoric acid is soluble in water. It is not compatible with strong caustic soda and is corrosive to ferrous metals and their alloys.
Reacts easily with metals to form flammable hydrogen gas. Phosphoric acid decomposes to form toxic fumes by contact with alcohols, aldehydes, cyanides, ketones, phenols, esters, sulfides, mercaptans, and halogenated organic compounds.
– In agriculture
Phosphoric acid is mostly used in agriculture. Phosphoric acid is widely used in the production of fertilizers and as a flavoring agent in livestock or poultry feed.
– In dentistry
Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry, where dentists often use a chemical compound as a etching solution to clean teeth. Phosphoric acid is also present in mouthwash products. In addition, phosphoric acid is found in anti-nausea drugs.
– Removes rust
Phosphoric acid is used to treat rust and remove metal components. It is useful in the phosphate conversion coating process. Phosphoric acid helps with corrosion resistance.
– Skin care products
Phosphoric acid is widely used in regulating or controlling the pH level of skin care products. Phosphoric acid is also found in toothpaste, soaps and detergents.
– Food and beverage industries
Used as a food additive and to acidify foods and beverages. Phosphoric acid helps to create a special taste.
Of the dangers of phosphoric acid, we can first point out that It is non-toxic in nature and does not damage the skin or any part of the body in low concentrations. But in higher concentrations it is dangerous and can cause severe skin irritation or burns and even eye damage. It can also cause irritation of the airways if inhaled. It should be stored in a fiber-optic container or covered with an inner polyethylene package in a cool, well-ventilated place.